Water--A Model Of Water Requirements For Irrigated And Rain-Fed Agriculture (Terjung-O'rourke, Et Al.,lecture Series Book 4)
All computer programs are in FORTRAN IV.Objectives.The principle goal of the work reported here was the development of a computer program capable of simulating fluctuating seasonal water use for a number of agricultural crops. First the model should produce water use estimates closer to observations of actual evapotranspiration (ET) than other methods such as Penman's equation or the Thornthwaite...
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system (e.g.,Thornthwaite, 1948; Thornthwaite and Mather, 1955). The program should be inexpensive enough to use that cost would not be a limiting actor in its application, even at regional scales. Furthermore, it was desired that the model have minimal data requirements yet still allow the user flexibility in specifying those factors influencing water use particular to a region or site. Finally, since one of the functions served by models is to summarize existing knowledge, it was desired to include as many as possible of the processes affecting crop water use, given the constraints affordet by the objective of low cost and few data requirements. The result of our effort is the program WATER, described in this report. WATER will simulate ET and other water-related variables throughout a growing season for a variety of crops: spring wheat, winter wheat,grain corn, sweet corn, spring rye, winter rye, spring barley, winter barley, rice, early potato, late potato, and alfalfa. Among the factors considered by WATER are a number of climatic variables, crop type, crop stage, field size, soil type, irrigation efficiency, and leaching requirements. The core of this model draws heavily on the methodology of Doorenbos and Pruitt (1973, 1977), although major modifications are introduced here.Depending on the users objectives, atmospheric input can be at several levels: 1. prevailing weather data, 2. long-term climatic averages, 3. climatic or weather scenarios of one or a series growing seasons, or 4. prescribed data input for systematic sensitivity analyses of the model's responses to varying inputs.Other environmental input variables (e.g., soil type, field size, field capacity, salinity, water table, management) are specified by nominal categories or "landscape scenarios".Default scenarios were prescribed but mat be overridden so that the user may decide which combination of conditions is most applicable for a specific locale.WATER was designed to give the practicing engineer, agriculturalist or physical geographer-hydrologist a basic tool for estimating water requirements for some of the major cultivars.Relevance. How patterns of food production will change in the decades ahead in response to seasonal changes in weather patterns (e.g., El Nino) or long-term climatic fluctuations is a growing question. The suggestion hat answers to questions surrounding future agricultural productivity have important social, economic, and political implications can hardly be debated and needs no elaboration.120 pages, plus extra pages for figures and tables.